TCPIP architecture model

by veranuka

Unlike the ISO/OSI reference model, TCP/IP architecture is only divided into 4 layers. The exchange of information between the layers is again exactly defined and again, each service uses the services of a lower level and provides its services to a higher layer.
Network interface(Data link) layer
Network layer
Transport layer
Application layer Network interface layer
The lowest layer of the TCP/IP model. Its task is to provide access to the transmission physical medium and it differs according to the implementation of the medium.
Network layer
The network layer provides network addressing, routing and datagram transmission. Used protocols that will be of interest further regarding DHCP are IP and ARP.
IP protocol
It is the basic protocol of the network layer and in general the internet as a whole. It sends datagrams, which are independent units that contain information about the destination, source and the sequence number of the datagram. The sequence number is used for message reconstruction, since the delivery order of the datagrams might not be the same as their order in the message and delivery reliability isnt guaranteed at all. IP protocol versions:
IP v4 32 bit addresses. Provides approximately 4 billion unique addresses which arent sufficient at present times.
IP v6 128 bit addresses. The transition to v6 will bring (is bringing) higher security, QoS, packet segmentation and many more IP addresses. (the transition from IP v4 to IP v6 must be supported by the system provider) ARP protocol
The ARP abbreviation stands for Address Resolution Protocol. This protocol is used to find the physical address (MAC) based on a known IP address. If required ARP sends information concerning the wanted address to all the stations in the network Broadcast. The stations consequently answer with a message containing their MAC. If the wanted device/station is outside the node/segment, the appropriate router will answer instead of it.
Transport layer
The transport layer is implemented only in terminal devices and it adjusts the behavior of the network according to the requirements of the device/application.

Application layer
The application layer is composed of programs that use net services to fulfill the needs of users. Examples of specific protocols are for instance FTP, DNS and DHCP. Application protocols use TCP, UDP or both services at the same time. So called ports are used to differentiate between application protocols, they represent a type of label of the application. It is possible to change the ports in the settings of the service, but each service has a default port that isnt changed for most services and is used as an unwritten standard.
FTP = 21
DNS = 53
DHCP = 67 + 68


Best Service Apartments In Gurgaon

by veranuka

Gurgaon today has become a millennium city where everyone wishes to come to. The reason for this can be understood from the fact that it is considered as one of the fast growing city which has many special things like great infrastructure and well Delhi connected roads to offer to the visitors. Unitech, Wave, Emaar, DLF and Parsavnath are the leading builders which contributed a lot to the excellent and stylish architecture of Gurgaon. By the best service apartments in Gurgaon one is supposed to have a great standard of life, diverse variety of services and ease of price as well. Single / double bedroom apartments or penthouse service apartments are easily available for the visitors to live and spend holidays. This is a place which can easily meet the requirements of various renters belonging to any category. From cheap to lavish rooms are also available here.
The south city, SushantLok and sector 14 have many residential service apartments spread across the area. Huge investment has already been done in sector 110 and 111. Once the project will complete a lot of other opportunities for service apartments in Gurgaon will get open for the visitors. The other two sector of Gurgaon named sector 80 and 86 have a great potential for the service apartments. More and more number of industries and multinational companies are also settling their base in Gurgaon. This is also a factor increasing the service apartment amenities for permanent and visiting people in Gurgaon. If someone want the good service apartments in Gurgaon in high & posh areas then also you can get it. The areas like Sohna road, Golf course road, sector 62 and sector 67 are the best and high posh areas in Gurgaon.
Considering the amenities provided in the service apartment in gurgaon it can be said that you will be getting the round clock supply of water, high physical security and power supply. These are the basic and necessary things for anyone to live in here. Those who want to live in some luxurious apartments do also have the opportunity of some luxurious house which is equipped with facilities like gymnasium, gardens, spa and swimming pools.
Many wish to take the service of a service apartment in gurgaon then no problem actually it is a good thing but there are few things that you should keep in mind before doing so. Budget, transportation, area and convenience are the factors that should be considered by you in order to be able to rent best service apartments in Gurgaon. One should also confirm that whether the particular service apartment is for short term stay or you can stay for long term in it.


How Property Development Marketing Techniques Have Changed

by veranuka

If you are interested in property development projects it is important to understand how real estate marketing works so that any property you are developing has the highest chance of selling quickly. This is because each month a property that you own sits on the market the narrower your profit margins will be. There have been many cases of individuals who actually took a loss on a property deal as mortgage payments built up over time. In todays market, when many properties are not selling it is important to learn how to market one as effectively as possible.

With real estate marketing, as with any other form of marketing, it is impossible to generate a sale without a lead. Generating leads takes a combination of several different things. First, you have to make a property as visible as possible and secondly you have to make sure that the right buyers are being targeted with information about a property. If the right people do not hear about a property they will not be able to view it and potentially become interested in purchasing it.

The way that people find potential properties can vary from area to area. In some areas it is more common for a potential buyer to use traditional methods and contact an estate agent for a list of suitable properties. In other areas a potential buyer may be doing a lot of the searching themselves. This may mean using a combination of online and print-based marketing materials.

By ensuring that your property is well-represented both in print and online advertising materials can make a huge difference in whether or not you will be able to unload it in as short a time as possible. If you are deciding on a real estate agent to sell your property for you it can be helpful to ask them what kind of publicity your property will receive and how aggressive their marketing methods are. You may find that if you are working with an agent who has a strategy that includes social networking, online representation and use of print materials that you will end up getting leads.

Once those leads have been located it is time to turn them into interested buyers. This is where ensuring that your property looks its best comes into play. If your property is not staged properly or it does not show well you may find that while there may be many viewings the number of offers you receive may be quite low.

Taking the time to speak with a real estate agent that you feel comfortable with and taking their advice and suggestions into consideration may make it much easier for you to sell your property development project in as short a time as possible.


Maintaining Your Garden Improving

by veranuka

There are many things that go into planning and planting a summer garden. Far too often would be gardeners do not consider the time and energy that should be spent maintaining the summer garden in order to keep your summer garden looking beauty and healthy throughout the long dog days of summer and well, in many cases, into the first frosts of fall. If prolonging the life and beauty of your summer garden is a priority then there are things that must be done in order to keep everything ship shape and in good working order.

Mini gardening goals should be mapped out and you should make all attempts to achieve and follow them as closely as environmental changes permit. Make sure this list allows for upsets such as a week of rain or a week of no rain as well as time to adjust for these inconsistencies and an inability to work in the garden when temperatures are well over the mark on the thermometer that reads uncomfortably hot. You should place a copy of these task or goals in a highly visible spot that you can notice each and every day and more likely make them happen.

Do what you have must to keep the weeds out, and provide proper nourishment to each specific plant you are growing. Check for leaves that are turning yellow and any pruning that needs to occur on a weekly basis. Get rid of the leaves as well as execute necessary cutting as required and take away every weeds when ever the ability or demand comes up. When you feel that weeds are taking over your garden area, you should simply add more mulch to kill them off.

Keep a garden perfectly trimmed so the grass and also flower garden seem properly blended and totally incorporated together. You do not want to ignore the best thing about a garden because your lawn looks unkept and ungroomed. Invest some time to grass maintenance in order to keep your grass and garden over a regular balance together throughout the summer time gardening season.

You must make sure that you are ready to fulfill the specific necessities of the numerous plants and flowers that you are growing inside your flowerbed. Should your plants and flowers that require less sunlit areas or even added liquid happen to be possibly getting too much sun rays or not really enough water you need to come up with attempts to incorporate cover from the sun to them and obtain a lot more h2o to them during the entire outstanding months or else you face the loss of an investment of your time and cash you will have currently made in acquiring and raising these kinds of crops.

Implementing proper care of your garden during the summertime might make the fall gathering operation go far more effortlessly whilst assisting get ready for the actual preparing that should happen in the winter months ahead of you. Learn from the maintenance of your garden and plan the next garden with the needs you became aware of this season in mind. Always take time to learn from both your successes and your summer gardening failures for the best possible results. Understanding how to take care of your flowerbed is the best strategy to see whether or not you